For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v nonfat dry milk, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised June 2020
Protocol Id: 263
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Tyr781 of human ACE2 protein. Antibodies are purified by peptide affinity chromatography.
ACE2 is a carboxypeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, or of angiotensin II to the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7 (1). ACE2 is a critical component in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). ACE2 is predominantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells of the heart and kidney and Leydig and Sertoli cells of the testis (2,3). The unique expression pattern of ACE2 determines its essential role in the regulation of cardiovascular and kidney functions, as well as fertility. ACE2 protein is localized mainly in the extracellular space with its carboxy-terminal end attached to the membrane via its transmembrane domain. Active ACE2 enzyme is secreted by cleavage at the amino terminus. Research studies have shown that ACE2 expression is elevated in human failing heart (4). ACE2 has also been identified as the receptor for SARS and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses (5-7).
Phosphorylation of ACE2 at Tyr781 has been shown to abolish the interaction of ACE2 with the adaptor protein subunit AP2 μ2, while simultaneously enabling its binding to the SH2 domain of the tyrosine kinase FYN (8,9). These results suggest that remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton may facilitate viral entry after formation of endocytic vesicles, with phosphorylation of Tyr781 acting as a molecular switch.
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