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This protocol is intended for immunoprecipitation of native proteins for analysis by western immunoblot or kinase activity utilizing Protein G magnetic separation.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
10X Cell Lysis Buffer: (#9803) To prepare 10 ml of 1X cell lysis buffer, add 1 ml cell lysis buffer to 9 ml dH2O, mix.
NOTE: Add 1 mM PMSF (#8553) immediately prior to use.
A cell lysate pre-clearing step is highly recommended to reduce non-specific protein binding to the Protein G Magnetic beads. Pre-clear enough lysate for test samples and isotype controls.
IMPORTANT: Pre-wash #70024 magnetic beads just prior to use:
Transfer 20 μl of bead slurry to a clean tube. Place the tube in a magnetic separation rack for 10-15 seconds.
Carefully remove the buffer once the solution is clear. Add 500 μl of 1X cell lysis buffer to the magnetic bead pellet, briefly vortex to wash the beads. Place tube back in magnetic separation rack. Remove buffer once solution is clear. Repeat washing step once more.
IMPORTANT: The optimal lysate concentration will depend on the expression level of the protein of interest. A starting concentration between 250 μg/ml-1.0 mg/ml is recommended.
IMPORTANT: Appropriate isotype controls are highly recommended in order to show specific binding in your primary antibody immunoprecipitation. Use Normal Rabbit IgG #2729 for rabbit polyclonal primary antibodies, Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 for rabbit monoclonal primary antibodies, Mouse (G3A1) mAb IgG1 Isotype Control #5415 for mouse monoclonal IgG1 primary antibodies, Mouse (E5Y6Q) mAb IgG2a Isotype Control #61656 for mouse monoclonal IgG2a primary antibodies, Mouse (E7Q5L) mAb IgG2b Isotype Control #53484 for mouse monoclonal IgG2b primary antibodies, and Mouse (E1D5H) mAb IgG3 Isotype Control #37988 for mouse monoclonal IgG3 primary antibodies. Isotype controls should be concentration matched and run alongside the primary antibody samples.
Proceed to one of the following specific set of steps.
NOTE: When using primary antibodies produced in rabbit to detect proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 50 kDa, we recommend using Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Light-Chain Specific) (D4W3E) mAb (#45262) or Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (#3678) (or HRP conjugate #5127) as a secondary antibody to minimize interference produced by denatured rabbit heavy chain. For proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 25 kDa, Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (#3678) (or HRP conjugate #5127) is recommended to minimize interference produced by denatured mouse light chain.
When using primary antibodies produced in mouse to detect proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 50 kDa, we recommend using Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG (Light Chain Specific) (D3V2A) mAb (HRP Conjugate) (#58802) as a secondary antibody to minimize interference produced by denatured mouse heavy chain.
posted December 2008
revised October 2021
Protocol Id: 121
Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with an Akt1 recombinant protein containing human Akt1 residues 140-480.
Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).
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