|PI3 Kinase Class III (D9A5) Rabbit mAb 4263||20 µl||
||H M R Mk||100||Rabbit|
|PIK3R4 Antibody 14580||20 µl||
||H M R||153||Rabbit|
|Beclin-1 (D40C5) Rabbit mAb 3495||20 µl||
||H M R Mk||60||Rabbit IgG|
|Atg14 Antibody 5504||20 µl||
|UVRAG (D2Q1Z) Rabbit mAb 13115||20 µl||
||H M||90||Rabbit IgG|
|Rubicon (D9F7) Rabbit mAb 8465||20 µl||
||H M||130||Rabbit IgG|
|Bif-1 Antibody 4467||20 µl||
||H M R||42||Rabbit|
|Atg9A (D4O9D) Rabbit mAb 13509||20 µl||
||H M R Mk||100-110||Rabbit IgG|
|Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody 7074||100 µl||
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Lys630 of human PI3 kinase class III protein, residues surrounding Thr72 of human Beclin-1 protein, residues surrounding Gly502 of human UVRAG protein, residues surrounding Leu210 of human Rubicon protein, or residues surrounding Gly780 of human Atg9A protein.
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Gly825 of human PIK3R4 protein, residues surrounding Val215 of human Atg14 protein, or residues surrounding Gly129 of human Bif-1 protein. Polyclonal antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but is also associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegeneration, infection and cancer (3). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and is directed by a number of autophagy-related (Atg) genes. These proteins are involved in the formation of autophagosomes, cytoplasmic vacuoles that are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. The PIK3R4/PI3K class III complex interacts with Beclin-1 to play a role during several stages of autophagy. Autophagosome formation is stimulated when Atg14 complexes with PIK3R4, PI3K class III, and Beclin-1. The UVRAG protein competes with Atg14 for Beclin-1 binding, forming a mutually exclusive complex with PIK3R4, PI3K class III, and Beclin-1 that regulates autophagosome maturation. Autophagosome maturation is impaired in the presence of the Beclin-1-binding protein Rubicon (4,5). Co-expression of PIK3R4 is required for PI3K class III activation and regulation by both Beclin-1/UVRAG and nutrient levels (6). Bif-1 directly binds to UVRAG, forming a complex with Beclin-1, resulting in increased PI3-kinase class III/Vps34 activity required for autophagosome maturation (7). Inhibition of GSK-3β, as seen during nutrient deprivation, results in increased expression of Bif-1, and can contribute to autophagic cell death (8). Atg9A is an integral membrane protein that is required for both the initiation and the expansion of the autophagosome (9,10). Recruitment of Atg9A to the autophagosomal membrane is dynamic and transient as Atg9A also cycles between autophagy-related structures known as omegasomes, the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and endosomes, and at no point becomes a stable component of the autophagosomal membrane (9,11). The precise regulation of Atg9A trafficking is not fully clarified, yet it is suggested to involve p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-binding protein p38IP and the Beclin-1-binding protein Bif-1 (12,13).
Explore pathways related to this product.
Except as otherwise expressly agreed in a writing signed by a legally authorized representative of CST, the following terms apply to Products provided by CST, its affiliates or its distributors. Any Customer's terms and conditions that are in addition to, or different from, those contained herein, unless separately accepted in writing by a legally authorized representative of CST, are rejected and are of no force or effect.
Products are labeled with For Research Use Only or a similar labeling statement and have not been approved, cleared, or licensed by the FDA or other regulatory foreign or domestic entity, for any purpose. Customer shall not use any Product for any diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, or otherwise in any manner that conflicts with its labeling statement. Products sold or licensed by CST are provided for Customer as the end-user and solely for research and development uses. Any use of Product for diagnostic, prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, or any purchase of Product for resale (alone or as a component) or other commercial purpose, requires a separate license from CST. Customer shall (a) not sell, license, loan, donate or otherwise transfer or make available any Product to any third party, whether alone or in combination with other materials, or use the Products to manufacture any commercial products, (b) not copy, modify, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or otherwise attempt to discover the underlying structure or technology of the Products, or use the Products for the purpose of developing any products or services that would compete with CST products or services, (c) not alter or remove from the Products any trademarks, trade names, logos, patent or copyright notices or markings, (d) use the Products solely in accordance with CST Product Terms of Sale and any applicable documentation, and (e) comply with any license, terms of service or similar agreement with respect to any third party products or services used by Customer in connection with the Products.