The Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Risk Gene (Mouse Model) Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting proteins identified as risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease (LOAD) by western blot. This kit includes enough antibodies to perform at least two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Each antibody in the Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Risk Gene (Mouse Model) Antibody Sampler Kit detects endogenous levels of its target protein. ApoE (E7X2A) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total mouse ApoE protein. Non-specific staining was observed in mouse pancreatic islets by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Pyk2 (5E2) Mouse mAb detects endogenous levels of total Pyk2 protein. It does not cross-react with other related proteins. BIN1 (E4A1P) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total BIN1 protein. The antibody recognizes multiple BIN1 isoforms. TREM2 (E6T1P) Rabbit mAb (Amino-terminal Antigen, Mouse Specific) recognizes endogenous levels of total TREM2 protein. A non-specific band of unknown origin is observed migrating at ~75 kDa. TREM2 (E7P8J) Rabbit mAb (Carboxy-terminal antigen, Mouse Specific) recognizes endogenous levels of total mouse TREM2 protein, both the full-length and the carboxy-terminal membrane fragment generated by proteolytic processing. A non-specific band of unknown origin is observed migrating at ~80 kDa.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues surrounding Asp26 of mouse ApoE protein, Val266 of human BIN1 protein, Glu267 of human SORL1 protein, Met182 of human MEF2 protein, Gly215 of mouse TREM2 protein, residues near the amino-terminus of mouse TREM2 protein, and a recombinant protein fragment specific to the extracellular domain of human EphA1 protein. Pyk2 (5E2) Mouse mAb is produced by immunizing animals with a GST-Pyk2 fusion protein containing residues surrounding the carboxy-terminal of human Pyk2 protein.
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Clinically, it is characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, which result in neuronal dysfunction and cell death (1). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a cohort of risk genes associated with late-onset AD (LOAD), including, but not limited to, APOE, BIN1, SORL1, TREM2, EphA1, MEF2C, ABCA7, and PTK2B (2).
APOE has three allele variants; ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4; with ApoE4 associated with an increased risk of AD. Evidence suggests that this risk occurs through promotion of amyloid-beta plaque aggregation (1). ApoE4 is also associated with impaired microglial response, lipid transport, synaptic integrity and plasticity, glucose metabolism, and cerebrovascular integrity (3). Mutations in BIN1, primarily involved in endocytosis and maintaining cytoskeletal integrity in the brain, are suggested to play a role in the aggravation of tau pathology (4,5). Increased levels of BIN1 have been seen in AD postmortem brain tissue (5). SORL1 expression is decreased in the brain of AD patients (6). Studies have demonstrated a role for SORL1 as a neuronal sorting receptor that binds amyloid precursor protein (APP) and regulates its trafficking and proteolytic processing, thus regulating β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide production (7). The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an innate immune receptor that is expressed on the cell surface of microglia, macrophages, osteoclasts, and immature dendritic cells (8). Research studies using AD mouse models indicate that deficiency and haploinsufficiency of TREM2 can lead to increased Aβ accumulation due to dysfunctional microglia response (9). EphA1 is a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases responsible for regulating cell morphology and motility (10). In the central nervous system (CNS), EphA1 plays a role in synaptic plasticity and axon guidance (11). EphA1 is involved in inflammatory signaling pathways (12), which may mean it plays a role in regulation of neuroinflammatory processes in AD (13). ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 7 (ABCA7) functions to regulate phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS (14,15). ABCA7 dysfunction may contribute directly to AD pathogenesis by accelerating Aβ production and/or altering microglia-dependent phagocytosis of Aβ (16-18). MEF2C is a member of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors shown to play a role in learning and memory formation through regulation of synaptic plasticity (19). Studies have shown that MEF2C may play a role in age-related microglial activation through IFN-I associated MEF2C deregulation (20,21). MEF2C may also act as a modulator for APP proteolytic processing of Aβ (22,23). Protein tyrosine kinase, Pyk2, encoded by the PTK2B gene, is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase highly expressed in neurons with implications in synaptic plasticity (24,25). In mouse models, knockout of Pyk2 impairs hippocampal-dependent memory and long-term potentiation (24). Overexpression of Pyk2 has been shown to protect neurons against Aβ42-induced synaptotoxicity (26). Pyk2 may also act as a kinase for tau phosphorylation and has been implicated as a modulator of tau toxicity (27,28).