The Mouse Reactive M1 vs M2 Macrophage IHC Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of characterizing the extent of M1 and M2 macrophages in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Each antibody in the Mouse Reactive M1 vs M2 Macrophage IHC Antibody Sampler Kit detects endogenous levels of its target human protein. Arginase-1 (D4E3M™) XP® Rabbit mAb does not cross-react with arginase-2. CD206/MRC1 (E6T5J) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes mouse CD206/MRC1 protein and is also reactive with human CD206/MRC1; however, this antibody is not suggested for immunohistochemical analysis of human tissues. Instead, CD206/MRC1 (E2L9N) Rabbit mAb #91992 is recommended for IHC analysis of human tissue samples. Staining of uncertain specificity in mouse endometrial epithelium has been observed by immunohistochemistry using CD68 (E3O7V) Rabbit mAb.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues near the carboxy terminus of mouse CD206/MRC1 protein and surrounding Ala1153 of mouse CD11c protein, Val47 of human arginase-1 protein, and Ala139 of human Iba1/AIF-1 protein, or with recombinant proteins specific to mouse F4/80, CD86, and CD68.
Macrophages are myeloid cells of the innate immune system that are found in all human tissues in the body and exhibit anatomical and functional diversity. These heterogenous cells are derived from monocyte precursors in the blood that infiltrate into the tissues and differentiate in the presence of cytokines and growth factors. A spectrum of different macrophage phenotypes, or polarizations, have been described based on their secretory profiles, gene expression, and functions. Macrophages have great plasticity and can switch from one phenotype to another under different conditions. At the opposite extremes of this spectrum are so called M1, or classically activated phenotype, and M2 or alternatively activated phenotype. M1 macrophages are generally inflammatory and anti-tumor, while M2 macrophages, commonly referred to as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are generally anti-inflammatory and pro-tumor. Relative contents of M1 and M2 macrophages in the tumor microenvironment may have prognostic values. Modulating macrophage polarization is actively pursued as a therapeutic intervention for many different diseases (1-6). In mice, F4/80, CD68, and Iba1/AIF-1 are considered general markers for macrophages. CD86, CD11c, and others have been used as markers for M1 macrophages, while CD206, Arginase-1, and others have been used as markers for M2 macrophages (7-10).