Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of L-929 cells, untreated (left), pre-treated with Z-VAD (20 μM, 30 min) followed by treatment with SM-164 (100 nM) and Mouse Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (mTNF-α) #5178 (20 ng/mL, 2.25 hr; center), or pre-treated with Z-VAD followed by treatment with SM-164 and hTNF-α and post-processed with λ-phosphatase (right), using Phospho-RIP3 (Thr231/Ser232) (E7S1R) Rabbit mAb (green). Samples were mounted in ProLong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI #8961 (blue).
Immunoprecipitation of RIP3 from L-929 cell extracts. Lane 1 is 10% input, lane 2 is Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900, and lane 3 is RIP3 (D8J3L) Rabbit mAb. Western blot analysis was performed using RIP3 (D8J3L) Rabbit mAb. A conformation-specific secondary antibody was used to avoid cross reactivity with IgG.
Western blot analysis of L-929 cells, untreated (-), or treated with combinations of the following treatments as indicated: Z-VAD (20 μM, added 30 min prior to other compounds; +), SM-164 (100 nM, 3 hr; +), and mouse TNF-α (20 ng/ml, 3 hr; +), using Phospho-RIP3 (Thr231/Ser232) (E7S1R) Rabbit mAb (upper), RIP3 (D8J3L) Rabbit mAb #15828 (middle), or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
Western blot analysis of extracts from 293T cells, mock transfected (-) or transfected with a construct expressing full-length mouse RIP3 (mRIP3; +), using RIP3 (D8J3L) Rabbit mAb.
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using RIP3 (D8J3L) Rabbit mAb.
Western blot analysis of extracts from wild-type (+) or RIP3 knockout (-) mouse spleen using RIP3 (D8J3L) Rabbit mAb (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower). Data were kindly provided by Dr. Junying Yuan, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA.
PhosphoPlus® Duets from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) provide a means to assess protein activation status. Each Duet contains an activation-state and total protein antibody to your target of interest. These antibodies have been selected from CST's product offering based upon superior performance in specified applications.
The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).
Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) was originally found to interact with RIP and the TNF receptor complex to induce apoptosis and activation of NF-κB (9,10). It has subsequently been shown that the association between RIP and RIP3 is a key component of a signaling pathway that results in programmed necrosis (necroptosis), a necrotic-like cell death induced by TNF in the presence of caspase inhibitors (11-13). RIP3 is phosphorylated at Ser227 and targets the phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which is critical for necroptosis (14). In mice, RIP3 is phosphorylated at Thr231 and Ser232, leading to association with MLKL and necroptosis (15).
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