Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of L-929 cells, untreated (left), pre-treated with Z-VAD (20 μM, 30 min) followed by treatment with SM-164 (100 nM) and Mouse Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (mTNF-α) #5178 (20 ng/mL, 2.5 hr; center) and then post-processed with λ-phosphatase (right), using Phospho-MLKL (Ser345) (D6E3G) Rabbit mAb (green). Red = Propidium Iodide (PI)/RNase Staining Solution #4087 (fluorescent DNA dye).
Immunoprecipitation of MLKL protein from BaF3 cells. Lane 1 is 10% input, lane 2 is immunoprecipitated with Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900, and lane 3 is MLKL (D6W1K) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific). Western blot was performed with MLKL (D6W1K) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific).
Western blot analysis of L-929 cells, untreated (-), or treated with combinations of the following treatments as indicated: Z-VAD (20 μM, added 30 min prior to other compounds; +), Mouse Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (mTNF-α) #5178 (20 ng/ml, 4 hr; +), SM-164 (100 nM, 4 hr; +), and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1, 50 μM, 4 hr; +), using Phospho-MLKL (Ser345) (D6E3G) Rabbit mAb (upper), total MLKL (D6W1K) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #37705 (middle), or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using MLKL (D6W1K) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific).
PhosphoPlus® Duets from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) provide a means to assess protein activation status. Each Duet contains an activation-state and total protein antibody to your target of interest. These antibodies have been selected from CST's product offering based upon superior performance in specified applications.
Necroptosis, a regulated pathway for necrotic cell death, is triggered by a number of inflammatory signals including cytokines in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, pathogen sensors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), and ischemic injury (1,2). The process is negatively regulated by caspases and is initiated through a complex containing the RIP1 and RIP3 kinases, typically referred to as the necrosome. Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) is a pseudokinase that was identified as downstream target of RIP3 in the necroptosis pathway (3,4). During necroptosis RIP3 is phosphorylated at Ser227, which recruits MLKL and leads to its phosphorylation at Thr357 and Ser358 (3). Knockdown of MLKL through multiple mechanisms results in inhibition of necroptosis (3-5). While the precise mechanism for MLKL-induced necroptosis is unclear, some studies have shown that necroptosis leads to oligomerization of MLKL and translocation to the plasma membrane, where it effects membrane integrity (6-9).
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